O - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth
Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth
This paper examines issues in meeting China's rapidly rising demand for energy. The authors argue that, for the Chinese Government, the basic premise of China’s energy strategy is sustainability: energy supplies should be secure, clean, cheap and, as far as possible, renewable.
In the United States, there is little difference in annual income inequality and income mobility between the rural and urban sectors of the economy. This forms a sharp contrast with China where income inequality is greater and income mobility lower among rural households than among urban households. When incomes are averaged over three years and when adjustments are made for the size and composition of households, income inequality among all households differs little between China and the U.S. in the 1990s.
Income information on the same urban Chinese households over six years in the 1990s provides an opportunity to describe movements in and out of poverty and to compare the dynamics of poverty in urban China with poverty dynamics in other countries. Poverty in urban China resembles poverty in other countries insofar as poverty is a transient state for many of the households who experience it in any given year. At the same time, an important fraction of all poverty episodes in urban China are accounted for by a relatively few households who experience long poverty spells.
The article hypothesizes how a new program granting amnesty to undocumented immigrant farm workers already present in the U.S. would affect agricultural labor market characteristics. Earnings differentials between undocumented and documented agricultural workers, decomposed by hourly-equivalent wages and hours worked per week, as well as public aid program participation decisions, are studied both nationally and restricting to the California labor market.