O - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth
Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth
Since the 1998 “wind of falsification and embellishment,” Chinese official GDP statistics have repeatedly come under scrutiny. This paper evaluates the quality of China’s GDP statistics in four stages. First, it reviews past and ongoing suspicions of the quality of GDP data and examines the evidence. Second, it documents the institutional framework for data compilation and concludes on the implications for data quality. Third, it asks how the National Bureau of Statistics could possibly go about credibly falsifying GDP data without being found out.
As an innovative form of social organization, the charitable foundation is a new phenomenon in the People’s Republic of China. Since 2004, when the new Regulations on Administration of Foundations were promulgated, the foundation sector has experienced rapid growth. However, compared to its potential and the important role the foundation sector can play in China’s social development, a more favorable institutional and legal environment should be considered to boost its expansion.
We propose a dynamic spatial theory to analyze the geographic impact of climate change. Agricultural and manufacturing firms locate on a hemisphere. Trade across locations is costly, firms innovate, and technology diffuses over space. Energy used in production leads to emissions that contribute to the global stock of carbon in the atmosphere, which affects temperature. The rise in temperature differs across latitudes and its effect on productivity also varies across sectors.
This paper studies the recent spatial development of India. Services, and to a lesser extent manufacturing, are increasingly concentrating in high-density clusters. This stands in contrast with the United States, where in the last decades services have tended to grow fastest in mediumdensity locations, such as Silicon Valley. India's experience is not common to all fast-growing developing economies. The spatial growth pattern of China looks more similar to that in the U.S. than to that of India.
This paper quantifies the aggregate impact of various subsidies enjoyed by China's exporting firms in the electronics and communications equipment manufacturing sectors, which nearly makes up the majority of China's exports. Using firm level data from China’s National Bureau of Statistics for 2007, the peak year for China’s trade surplus, we find that although within some narrowly defined industries exporting firms are enjoying net subsidies compared to nonexporting firms, the extensiveness and pervasiveness of export subsidies is actually much lower than what we initially expected.
This paper analyzes whether China’s investment and savings rates are too high by considering the rate of turn to investment and other factors. It also investigates the reasons for the rapid increase in the savings rate by using various sources of data and analytical tools. In particular, much attention is paid to the distribution of income among households, corporations, and the government, and to the labor income share. Policy proposals for structural adjustment are discussed based on the finding of the investigation.
A model of economic growth and environmental quality is presented in this paper, which then focuses on measuring the relationship between economic growth and environmental quality for China's four big economic regions. The inter-regional differences among the four areas are also compared. The research results show that the relationships between the three industrial waste emissions and economic growth have not completely followed an environmental Kuznets law, and the results for each region have obvious differences.
China is the world’s second-largest economy and its output data are being closely watched. The release of the latest GDP data by China’s National Bureau of Statistics can be felt on stock markets around the globe, and may influence a broad range of economic decisions ranging from companies’ investment strategies to monetary policy. But China’s GDP data are poorly understood. GDP in one year may be revised upward by 16.8 percent, while rural household consumption falls by 26.6 percent and government consumption rises by 41.1 percent.
Monthly economic indicators are used for a variety of purposes, from studying business cycles to determining economic policy and making informed business decisions. China’s published monthly industrial output statistics could hardly be more confusing, with changes in variables, in coverage, in measurement, and in presentation. This paper reviews the available official data and proceeds to construct a monthly industrial output series in nominal terms and in real terms for the period 1980-2012, economy-wide and for the public sector.
China has become a popular geographic area of research. Researchers make extensive use of Chinese official statistics, but these statistics are often not well understood. This article first clarifies three major issues that affect a wide range of Chinese statistics—from output and employment data to industry profitability—and then elaborates on data sources. The three data issues are changes over time to the sectoral classification system, changes to the ownership classification system, and changes to the coverage of the industry sector.