O - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth
Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth
We compare the cost of generating electricity with coal and wind in Chile’s Central Interconnected System (SIC). Our estimates include the cost of marginal damages caused by coal plant emissions. On average, we estimate that the levelized cost of coal, including externalities, is $84/MWh. It is efficient to abate emissions of air pollutants (SOx, NOx and PM2.5) but not of CO2. Then the cost wrought by environmental externalities equals $23/MWh or 27% of total cost. Depending on the price of coal, the levelized cost of coal may vary between $72 and $99/MWh.
This paper examines the political economy of emerging infectious disease (EID) surveillance programs. It provides lessons learned for U.S. military medical research laboratories collaborating with developing countries and is comprised of four case studies: Kenya (U.S. Army Medical Research Unit-K or USAMRU-K), Peru (U.S. Naval Area Medical Research Unit-6 or NAMRU-6), Thailand (Armed Forces Research Institute of Medical Sciences or AFRIMS), and the U.S.-Mexico Border (Early Warning Infectious Disease Surveillance or EWIDS).
This paper investigates a chain through which migration of labor between agricultural and nonagricultural sectors will have effects on inflation measured by changes in general level of prices or in Consumer Price Index (CPI). It first elaborates that equilibrium migration of labor in a period, characteristic of stability of the relative price between products of both the sectors in the same period, may exist along with capital accumulation.
Emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) pose international security threats because of their potential to inflict harm upon humans, crops, livestock, health infrastructure, and economies. Despite the scale of this threat, there are inherent limitations in preventing and controlling EIDs, including the scope of current disease surveillance efforts. All of this leads to the following questions: What would it take to have this infrastructure available in developing countries? Within developing countries, what are the cultural, political, and economic challenges that would be encountered?
Emerging infectious diseases pose international security threats because of their potential to inflict harm upon humans, crops, livestock, health infrastructure, and economies. What cultural, political, and economic challenges stand in the way of setting up such infrastructure? Are there general principles that might guide engagement with developing countries and support EID surveillance infrastructure?
Indian telecommunications reform began in the early 1980s. The performance of the industry at that time was poor. The Government of India eventually developed and implemented effective reforms that caused dramatic improvements in the quality and quantity of service. In early 2010 India passed an important milestone when the number of subscriber lines passed 600 million and telephone penetration rose above 50 percent of the population.
This paper investigates comparative relevance of intersectoral migration of agricultural labor and change in unemployment for short-run macroeconomic performance. Migration of this kind and change in unemployment occur simultaneously in every country all over the world.
The dominant productive resource of an overwhelming majority of households in South Asia, if not the only resource, is their endowment of labor. How this resource is utilized at each point of time and over time depends on the evolution of the framework governing the decisions of employers and households about their production, consumption, labor force participation, employment, schooling and accumulation, as well as public policy interventions intended to influence them.
The problems of agriculture and poverty cannot be addressed without reducing the number of workers and their families dependent on land, thereby raising productivity. There are substantial rural-urban and male-female differences in rates of labor force participation, employment, and unemployment, as well as informality of employment that exist within and across South Asian countries. Also, most of the employed in South Asia work in the informal sector. Regular wage or salaried employment in formal sectors accounted for a small share in total employment.
International migration is maybe the single most effective way to alleviate poverty at a global level. When a given host country allows more immigrants in, this creates costs and benefits for that particular country as well as a positive externality for all those (individuals and governments) who care about world poverty. This implies that the existing international migration regime is inefficient as it fails to internalize such externality. In addition, host countries quite often restrict immigration due to its apparently unbearable social and political costs.